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Guatemala; officially the Republic of Guatemala / República de Guatemala is bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. The name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān (nahwiki), or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees"
The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841.
14 eco-regions ranging from mangrove forests to both ocean littorals with 5
different ecosystems. Guatemala has 252 listed wetlands, including five
lakes, 61 lagoons, 100 rivers, and four swamps. Guatemala is home to at
least 8.682 species of vascular plants, of which 13.5% are endemic.
Guatemala has created 118 wildlife reserves.