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El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador / República de El Salvador is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. It is bordered on the northeast by Honduras, on the northwest by Guatemala, and on the south by the Pacific Ocean. It covers a total area of 21,041 km2.
El Salvador was for centuries inhabited by several Mesoamerican nations, especially the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. However the Viceroyalty of Mexico had little or no influence in the daily affairs of the Central American isthmus, which would be colonized in 1524. In 1609 the area became the Captaincy General of Guatemala, from which El Salvador was part of until its independence from Spain, which took place in 1821, as part of the First Mexican Empire, then further seceded, as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, in 1823. When the Republic dissolved in 1841, El Salvador became a sovereign nation, then formed a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898. The name originates from Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, who named the new province for Jesus Christ – El Salvador.
El Salvador's population is composed of 86% Mestizos, 13% whites, and 0,23% indigenous peoples of which 47% are Roman Catholics and 33% Protestants while 17% have no religion.
El Salvador has a tropical climate with pronounced wet
and dry seasons. Temperatures vary primarily with elevation and show little
seasonal change. The Pacific lowlands are uniformly hot; the central plateau
and mountain areas are more moderate. The rainy season extends from May to
October; this time of year is referred to as invierno or winter. I